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Ip Ftp Kilat Hosting – In today’s dynamic, application-centric marketplace, organizations are under increasing pressure to deliver the information, services and experiences their customers expect, and to do so quickly, reliably and securely. Basic network and application functions such as load balancing, encryption, acceleration, and security can be provided by Application Delivery Controllers (ADCs), which are physical or virtual devices that act as proxies for physical servers. With the explosion of applications as well as the demands placed on organizations by the deep era of mutual integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD), it is no surprise that the market for ADCs will reach $2.9 billion per year in 2020.

But before we move on to the future, let’s look at how we got here. Network load balancing is the fundamental basis on which ADCs operate. In the mid-1990s, the first hardware load balancing devices helped organizations balance their applications by distributing workloads across servers and networks. These early devices were application neutral and resided outside of the application servers themselves, meaning they could load balance using direct network methods. Essentially, these devices present a “virtual IP address” to the outside world, and when users try to connect, they forward the connection to the corresponding real server, which performs two-way network address translation (NAT).

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However, with the advent of virtualization and cloud computing, new iterations of load-balancing ADCs have emerged as software-delivered virtual versions running on hypervisors. Today, virtual devices can provide application services that include features that run on dedicated hardware. In addition, these virtual editions remove much of the complexity of moving application services between virtual, cloud and hybrid environments, allowing organizations to quickly and easily deploy application services in private or public cloud environments.

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The latest trend to enter the data center is containerization, an application virtualization technique that helps deploy and run distributed applications. This process isolates applications and contains them in clear OS-specific memory space, which not only makes application development and deployment easier than creating a virtual machine, but also makes it faster. Because of the significant improvements in transportability and performance, containers can give businesses greater scale and agility. In the future, container architectures can also help organizations make better use of different cloud environments.

Today’s ADCs have evolved from the first load balancers through the process of service virtualization. And now, with software-only virtual editions, ADCs can not only improve access, but also help organizations deliver the scalable, high-performance, and secure applications their businesses demand. After all, all of the virtualized application services, shared infrastructure deployments, and intelligent routing capabilities wouldn’t be possible without a solid foundation of load balancing technology.

To understand how enterprises can better address the complex challenges of a dynamically evolving market, let’s explore the basics of application delivery: load balancing 101.

Before we begin, let’s review the basic terms of load balancing. It would be easier if everyone used the same lexicon; Unfortunately, each vendor of load balancers (and, in turn, ADCs) uses different terms. With a little clarification, we can clear up the confusion.

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Most load balancing ADCs use the concepts of node, host, member, or server; Some have all four, but they have different meanings. There are two main concepts that these terms are all trying to convey. One concept, commonly referred to as a node or server, is the idea of ​​the physical or virtual server itself that receives traffic from the ADC. This is synonymous with the IP address of the physical server and, in the absence of a load balancer, will be the IP address that the server name (e.g. www.example.com) resolves to. For the remainder of this paper, we will refer to this concept as host.

The second concept is expressed by the term “member” (unfortunately also called a node by some manufacturers). A member is usually a little more defined than a host because it contains the TCP port of the actual application that receives the traffic. For example, a host named www.example.com can be assigned to the address, which represents the host, and can have an application (web server) running on TCP port 80, making the member address . Simply, this member contains the port definition of ​​the application and the IP address of the physical/virtual server. For the remainder of this paper, we refer to this as a service.

Why all this complexity? Because the separation between the server and the application services running on it allows the load balancer to interact individually with the applications, rather than the underlying hardware or hypervisor, in the data center or in the cloud. The host ( may have more than one service available (HTTP, FTP, DNS, etc.). By identifying each application uniquely (,, and 53, for example), the ADC can use load balancing and health monitoring (a concept that we will discuss later) based instead of host services.

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Note that most technology-based load balancing uses one term to represent a physical host or server and another to represent the services it contains—in this case, just host and services.

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Load balancing allows organizations to distribute inbound application traffic between multiple back-end destinations, including deployments in public or private clouds. Therefore, it is necessary to have a concept of a set of back directions. Clusters, as we will refer to them (also known as pools or farms), are collections of similar services on any number of hosts. For example, all services that provide a company’s website are grouped together in a cluster named “company website,” and all services that provide e-commerce services are grouped together in a cluster named “e-commerce.”

A virtual server is a proxy for a real server (physical, virtual or container). Along with the virtual IP address, this is the endpoint that the application presents to the outside world.

With these terms in mind, we have the basics of load balancing. A load balancing ADC exposes virtual servers to the outside world. Each virtual server refers to a cluster of services that reside on one or more physical hosts.

Although Figure 2 may not be representative of any actual deployment, it provides a basic framework for further discussion of the load balancing and application delivery process.

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With that common vocabulary out of the way, let’s look at a simple transaction that looks like it’s being delivered to a customer. As illustrated, a load-balancing ADC typically sits between the client and the hosts that provide the services the client wants to use. As with most things in application delivery, this deployment is not a rule, but a best practice in any deployment. Let’s also assume that the ADC is already configured with a virtual server that points to a cluster consisting of two service points. In this deployment scenario, it is common for the hosts to have a loopback route that goes back to the load balancer so that the loopback traffic is processed by it on its way back to the client.

This very simple example is relatively simple, but there are some important elements to note. First, as far as the client knows, it sends packets to the virtual server and the virtual server responds – simple. Second, NAT takes place. Here the ADC replaces the destination IP sent by the client (virtual server) with the destination IP of the host it has chosen to load the request balance against. The third part of this process is what makes NAT “bi-directional”. The source IP of the host’s return packet will be the host’s IP; If the address was not changed and the package was delivered to the client, the client would receive the package from someone who did not ask for it and just drop it. Instead, the load balancer remembers the connection and rewrites the packet to be the source IP of the virtual server, thus solving the problem.

Two questions usually arise at this point: How does the ADC load balancer decide to which host to send a connection? And what if the chosen employer does not work?

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Let’s discuss the second question first. What if the selected employer does not work? The simple answer is that it will not respond to the client’s request and the connection attempt will eventually terminate and fail. This is definitely not a preferred mode because it is not a high availability. Therefore, most load balancing technology includes some level of health monitoring to determine if a host is actually reachable before attempting to send a connection to it.

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There are multiple levels of health monitoring, each with an increasing degree and focus. The host monitor only pings the host itself. If the host does not respond to the ping, it is a good assumption that any services identified on the host are probably down and should be removed from the cluster.

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