Hosting Roermond – Coordinates: 51 ° 12′N 5 ° 59′E / 51.200 ° N 5.983 ° E / 51.200; 5.983 coordinates: 51 ° 12’N 5 ° 59’E / 51.200 ° N 5.983 ° E / 51.200; 5,983
Roermond (Dutch pronunciation: [ruːrˈmɔnt] (list); Limburgish: Remunj [ʀəˈmɵɲ] or Remuunj [ʀəˈmyːɲ]) is a city, municipality and bishopric in the province of Limburg in the Netherlands. Roermond is a city of obvious historical importance on the lower, eastern bank of the Meuse River. It received municipal rights in 1231. The city area of Roermund became a designated conservation area.
During that period the city played the role of a commercial town and the main town in the Duchy of Guilder. Since 1559, it has been the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Roermond. The skyline of the city is dominated by the towers of its two churches, the Cathedral of St. Christopher and Raymond Minster (“Monsterkerk” in Dutch). In addition to the church, the city has many significant buildings and monuments.
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The Celtic inhabitants of this region used to live on both sides of the River Ror. The invading Romans built a bridge (now called Stee Brök, or stone bridge) and established the first town in Roromand, now a suburb called Voorstad Sint Jacob.
Around 1180–1543, Rormund belonged to the Duchy of Gladers. In 1213 Roermond was destroyed by Otto IV of Brunswick, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Germany. By 1232 the city was rebuilt and received its own seal, rules, mint and court.
The first call of the monastery of the Franciscan Friars Minor, Minderbroederklooster, was in 1309. In 1361 the Holy Spirit Chapter was moved from Sint Odelinberg to Roermond. In 1376 Roermond Charterhouse was established.
Around 1350 Roermond became the capital of the “Oberquartier van Galera” (upper quarter of Galera). In 1388, during the Hundred Years War, it was besieged by France. The battle of the outer fortress of Buit op, the destruction of this fortress, and the old parish church afterwards.
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In 1441 Roermond became a member of the Hanseatic League, and by 1472 acquired the right to mint its own coins.
On April 23, 1568, the Battle of Reyndal took place near Roermond, which marked the beginning of the Eighty Years’ War. In 1572, Roermond was conquered by the Dutch William Hessell. On July 23, 1572, 13 Catholic priests were killed in the city of Roermond by militant Dutch Calvinists (Roermond Saints). Roermond was recaptured by the Spanish duke Federica Alvarez de Toledo.
Under Spanish rule, Roermond became a stronghold of the Counter-Reformation. In the name of the Inquisition, people were encouraged to report suspected witchcraft and heresy. In 1613, 64 witches were burned on the Galgeberg hill near Kapel di ‘t Zand [nl] in Roermond, the largest Dutch witch trial ever.
In 1632, the Dutch Stadtholder Frederick Hedrick captured Roermond together with Wallow and Maastricht during the famous “March along the Meuse”. However, attempts in the coming years to annex Antwerp and Brussels failed. North Holland is disappointed by the lack of local support. The Counter-Reformation reconnected the local population to Roman Catholicism, and they now distrusted the Calvinist north more than they loathed the Spanish conquerors.
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Between 1632 and 1637, Roermond was under the control of the Dutch Republic, and again from 1702 to 1716. Between 1716 and 1794, it was part of the Austrian Netherlands under the Habsburg Monarchy.
On December 11, 1792, during the French War of Independence, the French under Jarl de Miranda captured Roermond, but on March 5, 1793, the city was again under Habsburg control. The city was recaptured by France on April 5, 1794 and officially became part of the French départemt Meuse-Inférieure from 1795 to 1814. In 1814, during the War of the Sixth Coalition, Roermond was liberated by Russia.
After the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Roermond became part of the Kingdom of New Holland. This new district will be named “Maastricht”, after its capital. King William, who did not want the name Limburg to be lost, insisted on changing the name to Limburg. As such, the name of the new province is derived from the old Duchy of Limburg which existed until 1648 in the Maastricht – Liège – Aachen triangle.
When the Netherlands and Belgium were separated in 1830, there was support for adding Limburg to Belgium, but in d (1839) this province was divided into two, the eastern part to the Netherlands and the western part to Belgium. From this day, Dutch Limburg, the new Duchy of Limburg, is also part of the German Confederation.
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During World War II, Germany occupied Roermond between 1940 and 1945. On March 1, 1945, the city was liberated by Recce soldiers from the US 35th Infantry Division during Operation Class. At the time of liberation, 90% of all buildings were damaged or destroyed. Restoration returned the old city to its glory.
On 1 May 1988 the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed three British aircraft and wounded three others in a double attack. IRA members opened fire on an RAF car in Roarmond, killing Ian Shiner. Half an hour later, a second attack elsewhere, at New Berg, killed two British pilots and wounded another.
In a separate attack two years later, two Australians were killed. The two were lawyers on leave, who were shot by the IRA, believing they were off-duty soldiers of the British Army. Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke dismissed the IRA’s explanation, saying “this warped logic of war victims adds insult to human injury.”
Then Prime Minister John Howard refused to meet Sinn Fein’s Gerry Adams during a visit to Australia in 2000.
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On April 13, 1992, a magnitude 5.4 earthquake occurred near the city of Roermond at an epicenter depth of approximately 17 km (11 mi). This earthquake is the strongest seismic event in Western Europe since 1756. After this earthquake, the water level of many wells located in the Lower Rhine Ambimet showed significant coseismic anomalies Ruhr Valley, which crosses three countries (Belgium, Netherlands and Germany), is limited by two fault systems normal from the north-west, south-southeast the eastern boundary is defined by the boundary fault Phil, where the Roermund earthquake occurred in 1992,
And the western border is defined by the Faldebis fault zone, which is partly in Belgium. Evidence of plate tectonic activity along the Faldavis fault zone is seen in seismic profiles that show more than 600 m of offset in the Nioga deposit.
Although Horner showed the existence of the Risch seismic zone and recommended a comprehensive analysis of the Quaternary structure and background seismicity, coseismic movements are considered improbable and active faults remain largely unrecognized.
Roermond is located in the middle of the Limburg district, bordering the river Maas in the west and Germany in the east.
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Roermond is surrounded by a life belt, which offers many opportunities for hiking and cycling. In the east, nature reserves, such as the Meinweg National Park, the Leudal Valley, and the rivers Swalm and Ror provide forests, soils, and grasslands. Meinweg also contains a small number of wildlife, including a small group of vipers, the only curry snake living in the Netherlands. In the west, the Meuse River and the lake area, known as “Maasplass”, offer opportunities for water recreation.
As a city close to and surrounded by water and near two rivers, the Meuse and the Roer, Rohrmond had to protect itself from flooding. The worst floods were in 1993 and 1995.
Although Roermond has grown and developed steadily over the years, it was not until the beginning of the 21st century that Roermond saw another economic boost. This straight growth is mainly due to the construction of the A73 motorway which goes around Roermond on the east side. The toll road was planned to open in January 2007 with a 2.5 km (1.6 mi) Roertunnel carrying traffic under the city and a short Svelmer Tunnel under Svallem, but due to delays the tunnel was opened with only one lane available and frequent closures. Notable in the first few weeks, when numerous closures due to technical problems caused continuous traffic jams. The tunnel is now fully operational. Another freeway connection under construction is Germany’s Autobahn A52. The last 6 km (4 mi) section from Dusseldorf to the German–Dutch border is completed directly. The highway leads from Romond straight to Dusseldorf.
The city itself has a fairly high unemployment rate of 10.7% and the average income is lower than the national average, despite an economy above average in the region and an influx of new residents.
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Since 2001, Roermond has been home to the McArthurGl Designer Outlet, which has become one of the largest and most successful designer stores in Europe with an average of almost six million customers a year, making it one of the biggest tourist attractions in the Netherlands. In 2017 it reached 200 stores following its latest expansion. The designer outlet attracts many shoppers from Germany, Belgium and China.
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