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By Huabo Shi 1, *, Xinwei Sun 1, Gang Chen 1, Hua Zhang 1, Yonghong Tang 1, Lin Xu 1, Lijie Ding 1, Chengwei Fan 1 and Yin Xu 2

Received: August 9, 2019 / Reviewed: September 6, 2019 / Accepted: September 6, 2019 / Published: September 10, 2019

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(This article belongs to the Special Edition Advanced Solutions for Monitoring, Protection and Control of Modern Power Transmission Systems)

The Tibetan Central AC Interconnection Project (CTAIP), which connects the Tibetan power grid and the Sichuan power grid through a long-distance transmission line of more than 1,400 km, faces a significant problem of voltage regulation. Six ±60 Mvar static VAR compensators (SVCs) have been installed in the CTAIP to improve voltage regulation performance. However, SVCs can lead to electromagnetic oscillations below 50 Hz while improving voltage regulation capability. In this article, the electromagnetic vibration modes of the SVC and the sensitivity of its control parameters are analyzed. Next, we discuss the characteristics and influencing factors of oscillation. It was found that the ultra-long distance transmission system has an electromagnetic oscillation mode below 50 Hz. Applying SVCs weakens the damping in this way. High proportional gain and integrated gain (PI) parameters of SVCs can improve voltage regulation performance, but weaken electromagnetic oscillation mode damping. Therefore, a suppression method based on the optimization of the SVC PI parameters is proposed to dampen the vibration. The essence of this method is to use the rise time and the settling time of the voltage response of the SVCs as performance indicators of the voltage control and to take the damping level of the electromagnetic vibration mode as the performance indicator of the suppression capacity. electromagnetic oscillation of the SVC. By combining the two indicators, we form a comprehensive optimization index function and apply a smart optimization algorithm. We propose the SVC parameter optimization process and the multi-SVC parameter optimization steps in large electrical networks. Finally, the results of the PSCAD simulation and the real-time digital simulation (RTDS) confirmed the correctness of the proposed method. The optimization strategy was applied to the CTAIP. The experimental results of artificial grounding short-circuit confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

Static VAR compensator (SVC); Central Tibet AC Interconnection Project (CTAIP); weak network power system; electromagnetic oscillation; reactive power control power; optimization strategy

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The Central Tibet AC Interconnection Project (CTAIP) connects China’s Central Tibet, Chengdu and Sichuan power grids. It has a long track of more than 1400 km. Due to the long bridge and poor connection, the short-circuit current of 500 kV buses is only 3-5 kA, and the reactive power and voltage control capability is extremely poor. To improve the voltage regulation performance of the interconnected system, six static VAR compensators (SVCs) ±60 Mvar were installed in the CTAIP. Due to the special network structure and the high capacity of SVCs, a kind of electromagnetic oscillation phenomenon with vibration frequency less than 50 Hz has been observed by electromagnetic transient simulation, which is similar to subsynchronous oscillation.

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In fact, electromagnetic oscillation is one of the typical problems in high power electronic supply systems [1, 2]. In terms of oscillation frequency, the phenomenon of oscillation of CTAIP is similar to oscillation caused by subsynchronous control interaction (SSCI) [3, 4]. Several studies addressed the SSCI. In [5], he pointed out that the power system stabilizer can worsen the damping of the subsynchronous vibration mode of electrical power systems. Reference [6] presents the HVDC-induced subsynchronous oscillation of turbogenerators. Subsynchronous resonance has been studied with VSC-based HVDC transmission systems [7]. Subsynchronous torsional interaction with power electronic converters was studied by [8]. We found the constant power load [9], which causes vibration, based on power electronics. The subsynchronous vibration caused by the wind power plant is discussed in [10, 11]. Reference [12] pointed out that the control interaction between wind turbines based on D-PMSG and SVCs leads to subsynchronous oscillation. However, there have been very few reports of electromagnetic ripple caused by SVCs. In [13], the phenomenon of 14 Hz oscillation caused by SVCs in the central power grid of Tibet was presented. However, the oscillation mechanism is still unclear. In [14], an ultra-low frequency oscillation and suppression method was introduced in Central Tibet and Sichuan power grids, but it did not include electromagnetic oscillation. Additional damping controls for low-frequency oscillation are often used to suppress oscillation, while less research has been done to suppress electromagnetic oscillation. In [15], PSSs and SVC damping controllers were used to suppress local and inter-area low-frequency oscillation. In [16], an adaptive controller based on a neurofuzzy inference system was proposed to control the reactive power of the static compensator var to dampen the vibrations between areas. Reference [17] proposed a new delay controller to damp oscillations between areas. Reference [18] studied the location and optimal capacity of SVCs. However, the installation location of the SVC is fixed in this article, and this method is not applicable to the issue being investigated in this article. The coordinated control of SVCs and TCSCs to improve the voltage profile by particle swarm optimization was proposed in [19], but oscillation suppression was not discussed. A new modified fruit fly optimization algorithm combined with probabilistic sensitivity indices was proposed to coordinate and optimize the SVC damping control parameters to improve the stability of the wind farm power system in [20], but the control parameters PI of SVCs were not considered. In practice, the PI parameters of the SVCs are reduced to eliminate oscillation. It should be noted that although reducing PI parameters increases damping and suppresses oscillation, the voltage control capability is weakened, which is very important in a weak network system like CTAIP. However, there is no systematic method to optimize the PI parameters of SVCs considering both electromagnetic ripple suppression and voltage control capability.

In this article, we discuss the characteristics and influencing factors of electromagnetic oscillation. Based on this, we propose an optimization strategy for the SVC, considering both oscillation suppression and voltage control capability. First, the main oscillation modes are calculated. The SVC reactive power control performance is then calculated. After that, the optimization of the PI parameters of the SVC is performed with an objective function, considering both the damping rate improvement and the dynamic performance of the SVC. The characteristics of this strategy are summarized below:

The contradiction between the reactive power control capability of the SVC and the electromagnetic oscillation suppression capability is explored, which provides a basis for determining an objective comprehensive optimization function.

The performance criteria considering the damping characteristic and the reactive power of the SVC offer a new way to optimize the PI parameters in order to minimize the negative effects of the SVC.

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We propose the process of optimizing SVC parameters and the steps to optimize several SVC parameters in a large electrical network.

Finally, we apply the proposed systematic strategies to the CTAIP. Numerical simulations under different typical faults using PSCAD and real-time digital simulation (RTDS) proved the correctness of the proposed method. The proposed strategy was applied in a practical project. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy was confirmed by the short experimental results of CTAIP artificial grounding.

This article is structured as follows. The basic characteristics of CTAIP and electromagnetic oscillation below 50 Hz are presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 discusses the most important influencing factors of the electromagnetic vibration mode and points out the contradiction between oscillation suppression and reactive power control. Systematic optimization strategy

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