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Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops is the virtualization solution that gives IT control over virtual machines, applications, licenses, and security while providing anywhere access to any device.
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Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops share a unified architecture called the FlexCast Management Architecture (FMA). A key feature of FMA is the ability to run multiple versions of Citrix Virtual Apps or Citrix Virtual Desktops from a single site and in integrated configurations.
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This article is useful if you are new to Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops. If you currently have a XenApp 6.x or earlier farm, or a XenDesktop 5.6 or earlier site, see also Changes in 7.x.
The Delivery Controller is the central management component of the site. Each site has one or more Delivery Controllers. It is installed on at least one server in the data center. For site availability and reliability, install controllers on multiple servers. If your deployment includes a hypervisor or other service, the controller service communicates with it to:
The Controller’s Broker Service keeps track of which users are logged in where, which session resources users have, and whether users need to reconnect to existing applications. The Broker Service runs PowerShell cmdlets and communicates with the Broker Agent on the VDA over TCP port 80. It has no option to use TCP port 443.
Monitor Service collects historical data and places it in the monitoring database. This service uses TCP port 80 or 443.
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The controller manages the state of the desktops, starting and stopping them based on demand and administrative settings. In some editions, this driver allows you to install Profile Management to manage user personalization settings in a physical or virtual Windows environment.
Each site requires at least one Microsoft SQL Server database to store session and configuration information. This database stores data collected and managed by the services that make up the controller. Install the database in your data center and make sure it has a persistent connection to the controller.
The site also uses a configuration log database and a monitoring database. By default, these databases are installed in the same location as the site databases, but you can change this.
A VDA is installed on every physical or virtual machine in a site that is made available to users. These machines provide applications or desktops. VDAs allow machines to register with the controller, which in turn makes machines and the resources they host available to users. VDAs establish and manage connections between machines and user devices. The VDA also verifies that a Citrix license is available for the user or session and applies the policy configured for the session.
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The VDA passes session information to the Broker Service on the Controller through the Broker Agent on the VDA. The brokerage firm hosts multiple plugins and collects data in real time. It communicates with the controller over TCP port 80.
The term “VDA” is often used to refer to both the agent and the machine on which it is installed.
VDAs are available for single-session and multi-session Windows OS. VDAs for multi-session Windows OS allow multiple users to connect to the server at the same time. Single-session VDAs for Windows operating systems allow only one user to connect to a desktop at a time. A Linux VDA is also available.
StoreFront authenticates users and manages the desktop and application stores they access. You can host your company’s application store to give users self-service access to the desktops and applications you provide them. It also keeps track of the user’s app subscriptions, shortcut names, and other data. This helps ensure users get a consistent experience across multiple devices.
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Citrix Workspace app is installed on user devices and other endpoints, such as virtual desktops, to provide users with fast, secure, self-service access to documents, applications, and desktops. Citrix Workspace app provides on-demand access to Windows apps, the web, and software as a service (SaaS). For devices that cannot install device-specific Citrix Workspace app software, Citrix Workspace app for HTML5 provides connectivity through an HTML5-compatible web browser.
Studio is the management console where you can configure and manage Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops deployments. Studio no longer requires separate management consoles to manage application and desktop delivery. Studio provides wizards to guide you through setting up your environment, creating workloads to host applications and desktops, and assigning applications and desktops to users. You can also use Studio to assign and track Citrix licenses for your site.
Studio gets the information it displays from the Broker Service on the controller, which communicates over TCP port 80.
Director is a web-based tool that enables IT support and help desk teams to monitor the environment, resolve issues before they become critical to the system, and perform support tasks for end users. You can connect and monitor multiple Citrix Virtual Apps or Citrix Virtual Desktops sites using Director deployments.
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Director uses the ICA performance and heuristics data captured by the Citrix Gateway appliance to generate analytics from the data, which are then presented to administrators.
The license server manages your Citrix product licenses. It communicates with the controller to manage licenses for each user session, and with Studio to assign license files. A site must have at least one license server to store and manage its license files.
A hypervisor or other service hosts virtual machines at your site. These can be virtual machines that you use to host applications and desktops, and virtual machines that you use to host Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops components. The hypervisor is installed on a host that is entirely dedicated to running the hypervisor and hosting virtual machines.
While many deployments require a hypervisor, you don’t need it to provide Remote PC Access. There is also no need for a hypervisor when you use Provisioning Services (PVS) to provision virtual machines.
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The following components can also be included in Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops deployments. See its documentation for details.
Citrix Provisioning (formerly Provisioning Services) is an optional component available with some editions. It provides an alternative to MCS for provisioning virtual machines. When MCS creates a copy of the master image, PVS streams the master image to the user device. PVS does not require a hypervisor to do this, so you can use it to host physical machines. The PVS communicates with the controller to provide resources to users.
When users connect from outside the corporate firewall, Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops can use Citrix Gateway technology (formerly known as Access Gateway and NetScaler Gateway) to secure those connections over TLS. Citrix Gateway virtual appliance or VPX is an SSL VPN appliance deployed in a demilitarized zone (DMZ). Provides a single secure point of access through the corporate firewall.
In deployments that deliver virtual desktops to users in remote locations such as branch offices, Citrix SD-WAN technology can be employed to optimize performance. Repeaters speed up performance on the WAN. With repeaters in the network, branch office users can experience LAN-like performance over the WAN. Citrix SD-WAN can prioritize different parts of the user experience, for example, without degrading the user experience at branch offices when sending large files or print jobs over the network. HDX WAN optimization provides tokenized compression and deduplication to dramatically reduce bandwidth requirements and improve performance.
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Sites consist of machines with dedicated roles that allow for scalability, high availability, and failover, and provide a secure-by-design solution. Sites consist of VDA-installed servers and desktops, and Delivery Controllers to manage access.
VDAs allow users to connect to desktops and applications. For most delivery methods, it is installed on a virtual machine in the data center, but it can also be installed on a physical PC for Remote PC Access.
The driver consists of independent Windows services that manage resources, applications, and desktops, and optimize and balance user connections. Each site has one or more controllers. Since sessions are affected by latency, bandwidth, and network reliability, if possible, put all controllers on the same LAN.
Users never directly access the controller. The VDA acts as an intermediary between the user and the controller. When users log in using StoreFront, their credentials are passed to the Broker Service on the Controller. Broker Services then fetch available configuration files and resources according to the policies set for them.
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To initiate a session, a user connects through Citrix Workspace app installed on the user device or the StoreFront website.
The user’s credentials move through this path to access the controller, which talks to the proxy service to determine which resources are needed. Citrix recommends that administrators place an SSL certificate on StoreFront to encrypt credentials from Citrix Workspace app.
After validating credentials, information about available applications or desktops is returned to the user through the StoreFront-Citrix Workspace app route. When the user selects an application or desktop from this list, this information is returned to the controller. The controller then determines
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