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Francesco Alessio Dicandia 1,*, Nelson J.G. Fonseca 2, Manlio Bacco 3, Sara Mugnaini 4 and Simone Genovesi 5
Received: 2022 April 2 / Revised: 2022 April 15 / Adopted: 2022 April 15 / Published: 2022 April 20
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An overview of technological solutions and achievements in a vertical heterogeneous network (VHetNet) connecting satellite, aerial and terrestrial networks is presented. Breakthrough features and challenges for fruitful collaboration between these segments in a ubiquitous and seamless wireless system are described. Considering all these levels, available technologies and key areas of research to achieve global wireless coverage are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to available antenna systems at the satellite, airborne and ground levels, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses and presenting some interesting research trends. Finally, a summary of the most suitable future application scenarios for 6G wireless communications is illustrated.
Space-air-ground communications network; 5G; 6G; millimeter waves; massive MIMO; CubeSats; satellite internet access; Internet of Things; UAVs; LAP; MF; antenna; phased array
The sharp increase in wireless system performance requirements, such as data throughput, energy efficiency, latency, and security, as well as the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm [1, 2] drive research and development of new solutions. the maximum possible number of users and manage sensor networks with the necessary flexibility and scalability. In the past, higher bandwidth and network densification, i.e. deploying more and more base stations (BS) to reduce cell footprint, have been undertaken to meet the ever-increasing demand for data capacity. Conversely, in the upcoming fifth-generation (5G) wireless communication system technology, the enhancement of spectral efficiency (SE) is primarily provided by massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology [3, 4, 5]. In particular, massive MIMO systems rely on the spatial division multiple access (SDMA) technique to achieve the multiplexing advantage by simultaneously serving multiple users with the same time-frequency resource [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. Its implementation is based on base stations equipped with active electronically steerable antenna arrays (APAAs)  composed of multiple radiating elements providing advanced beamforming techniques [11, 12, 13, 14] capable of sending various data streams. . distributed in the same time frequency resource to different users inside the cell [15, 16].
5G wireless infrastructure began to be deployed in various parts of the world around 2019. . While the deployment and distribution of the network is underway, researchers have begun to investigate the next sixth generation (6G) wireless networks [17, 18, 19]. Ubiquitous and seamless wireless connectivity, one of the many goals of 5G, cannot be achieved using terrestrial infrastructure alone. Terrestrial BS cannot be used in autonomous or inaccessible areas such as rural areas, deserts, oceans and generally harsh and remote environments. Thus, the integration of wireless communication using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into 5G systems has been of great interest in recent years [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25].
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Although 6G research is still in its infancy , the concept of anytime, anywhere network access is expected to be a breakthrough in the emergence of next-generation wireless communication with the fruitful integration of space, air, and ground networks into a vertical heterogeneous network system (VHetNet) [ 27, 28]. To this end, it will be necessary to consider and manage the coexistence of different wireless communication platforms from the terrestrial to the space segment, consisting of heterogeneous software and hardware architectures, network topologies and communication protocols. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies will play an increasingly important role in network management and automation, as well as meeting the need for reconfiguration . On fig. 1 shows a sketch of a VHetNet scenario considering some satellite, aerial and terrestrial communication networks that are vital for ubiquity and seamlessness. As shown schematically, the entire network consists of three main layers: space, air and ground segments. Although both the terrestrial and space segments are well-established telecommunication communication services, they face a number of associated shortcomings and challenges. Thus, to solve or partially mitigate these problems, the air communication layer will play an important additional role in future wireless communication systems, providing universal and favorable access to the global network with the required quality of service (QoS) .
Overall, it turns out that the aerial segment is largely based on unmanned aerial vehicles, also known as drones or atmospheric satellites, especially for wireless missions. Due to their autonomy, flexibility, versatility and limited capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operating costs (OPEX), UAVs are becoming an increasingly attractive option [31, 32]. However, in general, depending on the mission tasks and objectives, these flying platforms can also be manned .
In addition to network topologies and architecture, the use of a large frequency spectrum is critical to maintain communication links with adequate QoS and meet the ever-increasing demands of a wireless communication system. Thus, in addition to frequency ranges below 6 GHz, the millimeter-wave spectrum (mmWave), i.e. frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz, will be promising for these wireless communication systems. For this reason, the millimeter-wave band has recently received much attention in 5G and higher wireless communication systems [ 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 ] to support higher data rates due to higher bandwidth.
However, despite the large spectrum advantage, the propagation of millimeter wave signals is slightly degraded compared to the propagation of signals in the frequency band below 6 GHz [38, 39]. High propagation loss, lower coherence time due to fast channel oscillations, higher power consumption in analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion, higher sensitivity to radio jamming, and poor power amplifier efficiency are some of the problems faced by mmWave links. needs to be solved [40, 41, 42].
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In addition, before the 6G era and beyond, the use of even higher carrier frequencies, such as terahertz (THz) or optical bandwidths, is expected to play a critical role in providing high bandwidth and miniaturizing huge components  ]. However, terahertz or optical communication solves more serious hardware problems, including antennas, power amplifiers or modulators .
This article provides an overview of the Space-Air-Ground Integrated Network (SAGIN) and highlights some of the research activities to support the multidimensional and interoperable future 6G and beyond wireless communications network. In particular, special attention was paid to the available antenna systems at the satellite, airborne and ground levels, highlighting strengths and challenges, as well as identifying several promising research directions. Antennas are undoubtedly one of the most important components and determine the performance of an aircraft’s transceiver subsystem. Table 1 compares review articles published in recent years on 6G and SAGIN technologies, indicating the specific angle from which they have addressed this broad topic.
This article is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the space segment and developments, including satellite constellations, followed by a comprehensive overview of antenna technologies currently in use in advanced satellite systems and under development for future satellite systems. A detailed study of Low Altitude Platform (LAP) and High Altitude Platform (HAP) issues such as network topology, spectral efficiency (SE) and antenna technologies is presented in Chapter 3 and the ground segment in Chapter 4. dedicated to the study of various application scenarios and the potential of the SAGIN paradigm in the future of 6G wireless communication. Finally, the conclusions are presented in Section 6.
From the humble Sputnik 1 radio transmitter in the late 1950s to the very high capacity satellite systems (VHTS) currently under development.
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